Group_ToiletInKit_Final.md 7.93 KB
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# FINAL PROJECT : TOILET IN KIT

##### TEAM : Maëva and Soujoud

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> *An emergency toilet, healthy, respecting environment and low cost, made from local materials.*
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##### WHAT? WHY? FOR WHO?

The goal of this project is to improve sanitary conditions in the camps. According to our exchanges and our researches, the solutions already available (chemical toilets, schools toilets) are not enough/not brought really fast or not enough appropriated for the needs: no / little privacy or security (for women), no real system of evacuation of water/waste that avoid pollution, few toilets present in the camps and not enough maintenance of these ones, bad smells, transmission of diseases.

We want to develop a toilet in kit more adapted to the context and environmentally friendly, that can even be quickly set up and also used after the camps to facilitate the return to home of the victims. Toilet seats molded on micro concrete or alternatives available on site will be brought to the camps with biodegradable absorbing liquid bags and a rubber ring.

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We chose to use a model that is already developed by EEDS, and adapt the mold so that we can fix a bag on it.
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![Process EEDS squatting pans](img/Process EEDS squatting pans.jpg)
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##### STORYBOARD
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The aim of this project is to make aware of the sanitation issues, especially in the camps where diseases can quickly and easily spread in the soil and then, in the water.

Awareness begin right now, with the production of the squatting pans and the bags, explaining to people, educating children in schools, ... Every body can produce pans with the right mold and explanations so it can be appropriated by people themselves.  

Wooden Molds are first produced in India by Fab Labs following the dimensions that we sent to them. Then, they will send it to companies that produce pans and organizations that teach people how to make pans. Everybody will be able to take a mold from the Fab Labs.

In case of a disaster, around twenty of micro concrete squatting pans per camps are brought with a stock of bags, like the aid kits that are distributed by NGOs. Near the camp, Holes are digged by people and NGOs to put in the bags that are hooked to the pans. A structure with bamboo sticks and tarpaulin is deployed around the toilets as the system of Mahila Gappa Shauchalaya, only for women and children, and an other one for men.

Full bags are stocked, and then collected when possible. (We can't exactly explain this process as we couldn't develop the bag and make more researches about the possibilities).

Women will be safer when using these toilets, and soil and water will not be more polluted.  

We are sure that in India, people will make molds with cheaper materials like steel, so the more important in this project is the new form of squatting pans.



##### TUTORIAL

*<u>NEEDS :</u>*

* *Wood panel of 80x 80cm and 30 mm thick (Any kind of wood but don't use OSB)*

* *CNC machine*

* *Sanding machine or pumice paper*


> Step 1 : Use the 3D model or make one with this form: the 3D model of the pan with an elevated hole. In that way it will be possible to attach a plastic bag on it with a rubber ring

![3D](img/3D.JPG)



![the mold](img/the mold.JPG)

> Step 2 : Make the wooden mold with CNC machine. You'll need a wood panel of minimum 90cm x 90cm and 30 mm thick. If you use MDF or similar wood, you'll have to saturate the wood with Vaseline or any fatty material  before step 3. Block Board is better, it's far less porous so it's not necessary to saturate it, but it's more expensive.

![Process wood mold (2)](img/Process wood mold (2).jpg)



> Step 3 : Sand down the mold if it's necessary.

![Process wood mold (1)](img/Process wood mold (1).jpg)





##### INFOS AND INSPIRATIONS

A village of Vidarbha innovates with toilets where women converse freely : http://base.d-p-h.info/fr/fiches/dph/fiche-dph-8152.html

Bio plastic : https://www.encyclo-ecolo.com/Bioplastique

About the Reinvented Toilet (RT) : http://stepsforsanitation.org/resource-center/reinvented-toilet/

OMS :  https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/Volume4_indexpreface_fm_fr.pdf

Uritrottoir :http://uritrottoir.com/

Gates foundation : https://www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/Global-Growth-and-Opportunity/Water-Sanitation-and-Hygiene/Reinvent-the-Toilet-Challenge-and-Expo

Comment inventer les toilettes du futur ? : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_rz63v78nMk&fbclid=IwAR0NUNDHOfyDyr1e8KjDaNmL0Hc-Ru9QuPjpN9spfyfKx5US6G9bxpYK7g8

IThrone : https://challenge.whatdesigncando.com/projects/a-new-way-to-flush-without-water-an-evaporative-toilet-that-shrink-wraps-crap/?fbclid=IwAR25H8OoI_kTL8HLuD9AOUeI3hqOoR7YgDSovxqqweKxAUkXH37JjfLjR7M

India is on the greatest toilet-building spree in human history : https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/design/india-biggest-toilet-building-spree-narendra-modi-a8512026.html

Natural Fibers in India : https://www.ibef.org/IndiaNowMagazine_e-Versions/French_V2_Issue4/files/assets/downloads/page0032.pdf and http://cerig.pagora.grenoble-inp.fr/dossier/LGP2-rapport-scientifique/page21.htm , http://cerig.pagora.grenoble-inp.fr/memoire/2005/chanvre-papeterie.htm, http://indianhempassociation.com/, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2442953

Ammanachi Labs project : https://www.etw-france.org/le-centre-de-recherche-ammachi-labs-inventent-un-moule-3d-pour-construire-des-toilettes/

Types of toilets : http://www.eautarcie.org/09b.html#to02

Human poo transformed into clean fuel for Kenya's urban poor:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7P3t1Z2iKg&fbclid=IwAR3rxrWVFY59UuZEj3uAjrib8cFTWWOjM8E3FvZg0c3x9o51WMd1ARkfJ7c&app=desktop

Sulabh toilets : http://www.sulabhinternational.org/advantages-of-sulabh-toilets/?fbclid=IwAR21ovZWmwkmFwd7qkCk8mkP9hhgnVjK_2_bIBsqkZQQFs52YFnVroTG9Zk

Des toilettes pour tous : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pEfYPUBFaNE

The innovators: US scientists harness the power of evaporating water : https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/dec/27/us-scientists-harness-the-power-of-evaporating-water-renewable-energy

'Electric' bacteria can purify sewage water - fast : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHAREQxSm7g

Comment l'eau peut-elle s'évaporer en deçà de son point d'ébullition ? : https://fr.quora.com/Comment-leau-peut-elle-s%C3%A9vaporer-en-de%C3%A7%C3%A0-de-son-point-d%C3%A9bullition

Nature's Recipe Book : https://materiom.org/?fbclid=IwAR19_yCz3rc9KxeiyZMFconwVJY6kU1YBTIlgXCpqbvVU9JY4_5dTplzeLg

Les biocomposites et composites polymère-chanvre en particulier : file:///C:/Users/Souchiie/Downloads/valbiom_141023_rapport-biocomposites%20(1).pdf

Intouchables : https://myextraordinarylifeweb.wordpress.com/2018/03/26/les-intouchables/

Molding casting Fab Labs : http://academy.cba.mit.edu/classes/molding_casting/index.html

Inde des toilettes pour la planète FIN Trust : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VfmY9Aq6tw

Sanitation will remain a mirage even after India stops defecating in the open : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/waste/india-will-soon-stop-defecating-outdoors-but-does-that-end-our-big-sanitation-problem-61752

About toilet : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/search/toilet-talk

Can’t use a stinky public toilet? Expect a solution soon : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/cant-use-a-stinky-public-toilet-expect-a-solution-soon-50196

Bio polymer : http://cerig.pagora.grenoble-inp.fr/memoire/2010/chitosane-papier-antimicrobien.htm, https://www.ecoviarenewables.com/biopolymers/

Biobag : https://biobagworld.com/environment/composting/

About yeast : https://www.pnas.org/content/107/24/10854

Toilet construction India : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/waste/swachh-survekshan-gramin-reports-62-toilet-coverage-surveys-0-72-villages-in-india-58427

A zero waste toilet to achieve a clean India : https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/waste/people-use-evapotranspiration-toilet-because-it-cleans-itself-59274

SafiChoo toilet : https://forum.susana.org/suppliers-of-pans-seats-or-moulds-for-urine-diversion-toilets/9619-safichoo-story-a-waterless-waste-separation-system-with-a-sit-squat-seat-kenya-zambia